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P Value

Blog posts and articles about how to use and interpret the P Value statistic in quality improvement efforts.

Dear Readers, As 2016 comes to a close, it’s time to reflect on the passage of time and changes. As I’m sure you’ve guessed, I love statistics and analyzing data! I also love talking and writing about it. In fact, I’ve been writing statistical blog posts for over five years, and it’s been an absolute blast. John Tukey, the renowned statistician, once said, “The best thing about being a statistician... Continue Reading
by Matt Barsalou, guest blogger I know that Thanksgiving is always on the last Thursday in November, but somehow I failed to notice it was fast approaching until the Monday before Thanksgiving. This led to frantically sending a last-minute invitation, and a hunt for a turkey. I live in Germany and this greatly complicated the matter. Not only is Thanksgiving not celebrated, but also actual turkeys... Continue Reading

7 Deadly Statistical Sins Even the Experts Make

Do you know how to avoid them?

Get the facts >
Once again, with the arrival of autumn, it's time for a flu shot. I get a flu shot every year even though I know they’re not perfect. I figure they’re a relatively easy and inexpensive way to reduce the chance of having a miserable week. I’ve heard on various news media that their effectiveness is about 60%. But what does 60% effectiveness mean, exactly? How much does this actually reduce the... Continue Reading
In Part 1 of this blog series, I wrote about how statistical inference uses data from a sample of individuals to reach conclusions about the whole population. That’s a very powerful tool, but you must check your assumptions when you make statistical inferences. Violating any of these assumptions can result in false positives or false negatives, thus invalidating your results.  The common data... Continue Reading
If you’re not a statistician, looking through statistical output can sometimes make you feel a bit like Alice in Wonderland. Suddenly, you step into a fantastical world where strange and mysterious phantasms appear out of nowhere.   For example, consider the T and P in your t-test results. “Curiouser and curiouser!” you might exclaim, like Alice, as you gaze at your output. What are these values,... Continue Reading
Statistical inference uses data from a sample of individuals to reach conclusions about the whole population. It’s a very powerful tool. But as the saying goes, “With great power comes great responsibility!” When attempting to make inferences from sample data, you must check your assumptions. Violating any of these assumptions can result in false positives or false negatives, thus invalidating... Continue Reading
Data mining can be helpful in the exploratory phase of an analysis. If you're in the early stages and you're just figuring out which predictors are potentially correlated with your response variable, data mining can help you identify candidates. However, there are problems associated with using data mining to select variables. In my previous post, we used data mining to settle on the following... Continue Reading
On the Minitab Blog, we’ve often discussed getting data into Minitab from Excel. Here's a small sampling, in case you currently have data in Excel: Minitab and Excel: Making the (Data) Connection Linking Minitab to Excel to Get Answers Fast 3 Tips for Importing Excel Data into Minitab But if your data is not in Excel to begin with, taking it into Excel to prepare it for entry into Minitab isn’t... Continue Reading
I watched an old motorcycle flick from the 1960s the other night, and I was struck by the bikers' slang. They had a language all their own. Just like statisticians, whose manner of speaking often confounds those who aren't hep to the lingo of data analysis. It got me thinking...what if there were an all-statistician biker gang? Call them the Nulls Angels. Imagine them in their colors, tearing... Continue Reading
If you were among the 300 people who attended the first-ever Minitab Insights conference in September, you already know how powerful it was. Attendees learned how practitioners from a wide range of industries use data analysis to address a variety of problems, find solutions, and improve business practices. In the coming weeks and months, we will share more of the great insights and guidance shared... Continue Reading
True or false: When comparing a parameter for two sets of measurements, you should always use a hypothesis test to determine whether the difference is statistically significant. The answer? (drumroll...) True! ...and False! To understand this paradoxical answer, you need to keep in mind the difference between samples, populations, and descriptive and inferential statistics.  Descriptive Statistics and... Continue Reading
Data mining uses algorithms to explore correlations in data sets. An automated procedure sorts through large numbers of variables and includes them in the model based on statistical significance alone. No thought is given to whether the variables and the signs and magnitudes of their coefficients make theoretical sense. We tend to think of data mining in the context of big data, with its huge... Continue Reading
Today, September 16, is World Ozone Day. You don't hear much about the ozone layer any more. In fact, if you’re under 30, you might think this is just another trivial, obscure observance, along the lines of International Dot Day (yesterday) or National Apple Dumpling Day (tomorrow). But there’s a good reason that, almost 30 years ago, the United Nations designated today to as a day to raise... Continue Reading
You’ve performed multiple linear regression and have settled on a model which contains several predictor variables that are statistically significant. At this point, it’s common to ask, “Which variable is most important?” This question is more complicated than it first appears. For one thing, how you define “most important” often depends on your subject area and goals. For another, how you collect... Continue Reading
There may be huge potential benefits waiting in the data in your servers. These data may be used for many different purposes. Better data allows better decisions, of course. Banks, insurance firms, and telecom companies already own a large amount of data about their customers. These resources are useful for building a more personal relationship with each customer. Some organizations already use... Continue Reading
The college football season is here, and this raises a very important question: Is Alabama going to be undefeated when they win the national championship, or will they lose a regular-season game along the way? Okay, so it's not a given that Alabama is going to win the championship this year, but when you've won 4 of the last 7 you're definitely the odds-on favorite. However, what if we wanted to take... Continue Reading
In 2011 we had solar panels fitted on our property. In the last few months we have noticed a few problems with the inverter (the equipment that converts the electricity generated by the panels from DC to AC, and manages the transfer of unused electric to the power company). It was shutting down at various times throughout the day, typically when it was very sunny, resulting in no electricity being... Continue Reading
See if this sounds fair to you. I flip a coin. Heads: You win $1.Tails: You pay me $1. You may not like games of chance, but you have to admit it seems like a fair game. At least, assuming the coin is a normal, balanced coin, and assuming I’m not a sleight-of-hand magician who can control the coin. How about this next game? You pay me $2 to play.I flip a coin over and over until it comes up heads.Your... Continue Reading
I blogged a few months back about three different Minitab tools you can use to examine your data over time. Did you know you that you can also use a simple run chart to display how your process data changes over time? Of course those “changes” could be evidence of special-cause variation, which a run chart can help you see. What’s special-cause variation, and how’s it different from common-cause... Continue Reading
While some posts in our Minitab blog focus on understanding t-tests and t-distributions this post will focus more simply on how to hand-calculate the t-value for a one-sample t-test (and how to replicate the p-value that Minitab gives us).  The formulas used in this post are available within Minitab Statistical Software by choosing the following menu path: Help > Methods and Formulas > Basic... Continue Reading