# Statistics

Blog posts and articles about statistical principles and their application in quality improvement methods such as Lean and Six Sigma.

As a person who loves baking (and eating) cakes, I find it bothersome to go through all the effort of baking a cake when the end result is too dry for my taste. For that reason, I decided to use a designed experiment in Minitab to help me reduce the moisture loss in baked chocolate cakes, and find the optimal settings of my input factors to produce a moist baked chocolate cake. I’ll share the... Continue Reading
To make objective decisions about the processes that are critical to your organization, you often need to examine categorical data. You may know how to use a t-test or ANOVA when you’re comparing measurement data (like weight, length, revenue, and so on), but do you know how to compare attribute or counts data? It easy to do with statistical software like Minitab.  One person may look at this bar... Continue Reading

### 7 Deadly Statistical Sins Even the Experts Make

Do you know how to avoid them?

by Rehman Khan, guest blogger There are many articles giving Minitab tips already, so to be different I have done mine in the style of my books, which use example-based learning. All ten tips are shown using a single example. If you don’t already know these 10 tips you will get much more benefit if you work along with the example. You don’t need to download any files to work along—although, if you... Continue Reading
Histograms are one of the most common graphs used to display numeric data. Anyone who takes a statistics course is likely to learn about the histogram, and for good reason: histograms are easy to understand and can instantly tell you a lot about your data. Here are three of the most important things you can learn by looking at a histogram.  Shape—Mirror, Mirror, On the Wall… If the left side of a... Continue Reading
by Matthew Barsalou, guest blogger.  The old saying “if it walks like a duck, quacks like a duck and looks like a duck, then it must be a duck” may be appropriate in bird watching; however, the same idea can’t be applied when observing a statistical distribution. The dedicated ornithologist is often armed with binoculars and a field guide to the local birds and this should be sufficient. A... Continue Reading
Have you ever wanted to know the odds of something happening, or not happening?  It's the kind of question that students are frequently asked to calculate by hand in introductory statistics classes, and going through that exercise is a good way to become familiar with the mathematical formulas the underlie probability (and hence, all of statistics).  But let's be honest: when class is over, most... Continue Reading
In its industry guidance to companies that manufacture drugs and biological products for people and animals, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends three stages for process validation. While my last post covered statistical tools for the Process Design stage, here we will focus on the statistical techniques typically utilized for the second stage, Process Qualification. Stage 2: Process... Continue Reading
In the first part of this series, we saw how conflicting opinions about a subjective factor can create business problems. In part 2, we used Minitab's Assistant feature to set up an attribute agreement analysis study that will provide a better understanding of where and when such disagreements occur.  We asked four loan application reviewers to reject or approve 30  selected applications, two... Continue Reading
Did you ever wonder why statistical analyses and concepts often have such weird, cryptic names? One conspiracy theory points to the workings of a secret committee called the ICSSNN. The International Committee for Sadistic Statistical Nomenclature and Numerophobia was formed solely to befuddle and subjugate the masses. Its mission: To select the most awkward, obscure, and confusing name possible... Continue Reading
T'was the season for toys recently, and Christmas day found me playing around with a classic, the Etch-a-Sketch. As I noodled with the knobs, I had a sudden flash of recognition: my drawing reminded me of the Empirical CDF Plot in Minitab Statistical Software. Did you just ask, "What's a CDF plot? And what's so empirical about it?" Both very good questions. Let's start with the first, and we'll... Continue Reading
Previously, I discussed how business problems arise when people have conflicting opinions about a subjective factor, such as whether something is the right color or not, or whether a job applicant is qualified for a position. The key to resolving such honest disagreements and handling future decisions more consistently is a statistical tool called attribute agreement analysis. In this post, we'll... Continue Reading
In my last post on DMAIC tools for the Define phase, we reviewed various graphs and stats typically used to define project goals and customer deliverables. Let’s now move along to the tools you can use in Minitab Statistical Software to conduct the Measure phase. Measure Phase Methodology The goal of this phase is to measure the process to determine its current performance and quantify the problem.... Continue Reading
People frequently have different opinions. Usually that's fine—if everybody thought the same way, life would be pretty boring—but many business decisions are based on opinion. And when different people in an organization reach different conclusions about the same business situation, problems follow.  Inconsistency and poor quality result when people being asked to make yes / no, pass / fail, and... Continue Reading
Process validation is vital to the success of companies that manufacture drugs and biological products for people and animals. According to the FDA guidelines published by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: “Process validation is defined as the collection and evaluation of data, from the process design state through commercial production, which establishes scientific evidence that a... Continue Reading
When you’re working in Minitab and prepping your data for analysis, it’s common to group data into categories that imply a specific order, such as Low, Medium, High or Beginning, Middle, End. But if the data were to appear in a different order in tables and graphs (for example, Beginning, End, Middle), the result could be confusing, and might distract from your message. Fortunately, with Minitab’s va... Continue Reading
Did you ever get a pair of jeans or a shirt that you liked, but didn't quite fit you perfectly? That happened to me a few months ago. The jeans looked good, and they were very well made, but it took a while before I was comfortable wearing them. I much prefer it when I can get a pair with a perfect fit, that feel like I was born in them, with no period of "adjustment."  So which pair do you think I... Continue Reading
The language of statistics is a funny thing, but there usually isn't much to laugh at in the consequences that can follow when misunderstandings occur between statisticians and non-statisticians. We see these consequences frequently in the media, when new studies—that usually contradict previous ones—are breathlessly related, as if their findings were incontrovertible facts. Similar, though less... Continue Reading
Want to learn some simple tricks for preparing your graphs for presentation—specifically, how to add footnotes to your graphs, display your graphs in one layout, and add objects (shapes, text, etc.) to make your graphs easier to interpret? Below I’ll share three tips that can help you get your Minitab graphs presentation-ready! 1. Add a footnote to a graph: If you’re looking to add a footnote while... Continue Reading
For all you creative and fun-loving folks out there, in this blog post I'm going to share a puzzle instead of a story or lesson. The holiday season is getting into full swing here in the United States, and that gives us an opportunity to pause and reflect, and even have a little fun while still thinking about how we can improve our processes and products.   Perhaps you're wondering what a puzzle... Continue Reading
The line plot is an incredibly agile but frequently overlooked tool in the quest to better understand your processes. In any process, whether it's baking a cake or processing loan forms, many factors have the potential to affect the outcome. Changing the source of raw materials could affect the strength of plywood a factory produces. Similarly, one method of gluing this plywood might be better... Continue Reading